AskDefine | Define lettuce

Dictionary Definition

lettuce

Noun

1 informal terms for money [syn: boodle, bread, cabbage, clams, dinero, dough, gelt, kale, lolly, lucre, loot, moolah, pelf, scratch, shekels, simoleons, sugar, wampum]
2 any of various plants of the genus Lactuca
3 leaves of any of various plants of Lactuca sativa

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Etymology

letuse, of uncertain precise origin; related to Old French laituë, from lactuca, from lac.

Pronunciation

/ˈlɛtɪs/

Noun

  1. An edible plant, Lactuca sativa, having a head of green and/or purple leaves.
  2. The leaves of the lettuce plant eaten as a vegetable.
    I’ll have a ham sandwich with lettuce and tomato.
  3. : Folding money, also called cabbage (all paper currency in the US is green, the common color of the vegetable.)

Translations

an edible plant, Lactuca sativa
  • Finnish: lehtisalaatti
  • Hungarian: saláta, fejessaláta
  • Latin: lactuca
  • Russian: салат-латук, салат
  • Spanish: lechuga
the leaves of the lettuce plant eaten as a vegetable
  • Finnish: salaatinlehti
  • Hungarian: saláta
  • Latin: lactuca
  • Russian: салат
  • Spanish: lechuga
(US slang) folding money

Derived terms

See also

Extensive Definition

This article is about the plant. For the Tokyo Mew Mew character, see Lettuce Midorikawa.
The Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is a temperate annual or biennial plant of the daisy family Asteraceae. It is most often grown as a leaf vegetable. In many countries, it is typically eaten cold and raw, in salads, hamburgers, tacos, and many other dishes. In some places, including China, lettuce is typically eaten cooked and use of the stem is as important as use of the leaf. Both the English name and the Latin name of the genus are ultimately derived from lac, the Latin word for “milk”, referring to the plant’s milky juice. Mild in flavour, it has been described over the centuries as a cooling counterbalance to other ingredients in a salad.
The lettuce plant has a short stem initially (a rosette growth habit), but when it blooms the stem lengthens and branches, and it produces many flower heads that look like those of dandelions, but smaller. This is called bolting. When grown to eat, lettuce is harvested before it bolts. Lettuce is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera.

Cultivars

There are six commonly recognised Cultivar Groups of lettuce which are ordered here by head formation and leaf structure; there are hundreds of cultivars of lettuce selected for leaf shape and colour, as well as extended field and shelf life, within each of these Cultivar Groups:
  • Butterhead, also called Boston or Bibb, forms loose heads; it has a buttery texture. Butterhead cultivars are most popular in Europe.
  • Chinese lettuce types generally have long, sword-shaped, non-head-forming leaves, with a bitter and robust flavour unlike Western types, appropriate for use in stir-fried dishes and stews. Chinese lettuce cultivars are divided into “stem-use” types (called celtuce in English), and “leaf-use” types such as youmaicai () or shengcai (生菜).
  • Crisphead, also called Iceberg, which form tight, dense heads that resemble cabbage. They are generally the mildest of the lettuces, valued more for their crunchy texture than for flavour. Cultivars of iceberg lettuce are the most familiar lettuces in the USA. The name Iceberg comes from the way the lettuce was transported in the US starting in the 1920s on train-wagons covered in crushed ice, making them look like icebergs.
  • Looseleaf, with tender, delicate, and mildly flavoured leaves. This group comprises oak leaf and lollo rosso lettuces.
  • Romaine, also called Cos, is a head-forming type with elongated leaves.
  • Summer Crisp, also called Batavian, which form moderately dense heads with a crunchy texture; this type is intermediate between iceberg and looseleaf types.
Some lettuces (especially iceberg) have been specifically bred to remove the bitterness from their leaves. These lettuces have a high water content with very little nutrient value. The more bitter lettuces and the ones with pigmented leaves contain antioxidants.

Breeding

L. sativa can easily be bred with closely related species in Lactuca such as L. serriola, L. saligna, and L. virosa, and breeding programs for cultivated lettuce have included those species to broaden the available gene pool. Starting in the 1990s, breeding programs began to include more distantly related species such as L. tatarica.

Facts and figures

  • Lactucarium (or “Lettuce Opium”) is a mild opiate-like substance that is contained in all types of lettuce. Both the Romans and Egyptians took advantage of this property eating lettuce at the end of a meal to induce sleep.
  • Lettuce is a fat free, low calorie and saturated fat free food. It is a valuable source of vitamin A and folic acid
  • The largest lettuce head weighed 11 kg (25 lb), of the Salad Bowl cultivar, grown by Colin Bowcock of Willaston, England, in 1974.
  • In the United States, 95% of all head lettuce is grown in California and Arizona.
  • The Yazidi consider eating lettuce taboo.

History

The lettuce that we see today actually started out as a weed around the Mediterranean basin. Served in dishes for more than 4500 years, lettuce has certainly made its mark in history- as seen from tomb paintings in Egypt to the depiction of many different varieties in ancient Greek relics. Christopher Columbus introduced lettuce to the new world.

Notes

References

lettuce in Arabic: خس
lettuce in Bavarian: Salot
lettuce in Catalan: Enciam
lettuce in Czech: Locika setá
lettuce in Welsh: Letysen
lettuce in German: Gartensalat
lettuce in Modern Greek (1453-): Μαρούλι
lettuce in Spanish: Lactuca sativa
lettuce in Esperanto: Kultiva laktuko
lettuce in Basque: Uraza
lettuce in French: Laitue cultivée
lettuce in Italian: Lactuca sativa
lettuce in Korean: 상추
lettuce in Hebrew: חסת התרבות
lettuce in Macedonian: Зелена салата
lettuce in Japanese: レタス
lettuce in Polish: Sałata siewna
lettuce in Portuguese: Alface
lettuce in Russian: Салат (растение)
lettuce in Simple English: Lettuce
lettuce in Serbian: Зелена салата
lettuce in Finnish: Lehtisalaatti
lettuce in Swedish: Sallat
lettuce in Tonga (Tonga Islands): lētisilau
lettuce in Turkish: Marul
lettuce in Chinese: 生菜
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